When a cell is irritated or damaged, or when it begins to age, its membranes break down. As a result, compounds contained within the cell walls are released into the cellular matrix. Some of these substances, such as histamine, give rise to inflammation and associated pain. The ingredients in RECOVERY® are skillfully and carefully combined to help stabilize cell membranes, ensuring that you derive maximum benefit. RECOVERY® ingredients work synergistically within the body to maximize health and wellbeing… Nutricol®: First and foremost in the quest to quell the processes that result in pain is our proprietary ingredient, Nutricol®. Consisting of the polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) from green tea, and grapeseed extract, as well as the proanthocyanidins, theaflavin and resveratrol, Nutricol®’s ingredients empower each other to increase cell membrane receptivity to hormones such as insulin, IGF, and thyroxin. These hormones are an important requirement for the processes involved in building/healing to take place. Improved cell membranes also allow the cells to better absorb and benefit from nutrients such as glucosamine in foods and supplements, increasing tissue health and overall quality of life. Let’s take a closer look at how the ingredients in Nutricol® facilitate the healing process. EGCg and Grapeseed extract Both important polyphenols, EGCg and grapeseed extract have been shown to inhibit the processes that lead to inflammation. This is largely attributable to their high antioxidant activity along with their ability to increase activity of the body’s own antioxidant and detoxification systems. In a 1999 University of Kansas study, researchers found that green tea is at least 100 times more effective than vitamin C and 25 times better than vitamin E at protecting cells and their genetic material, DNA, from damage1. Green tea polyphenols have also been shown to suppress inflammatory prostaglandin-E2 —a hormone-like substance that contributes towards arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. A 2004 laboratory study at the University of Sheffield in England found that EGCg may help prevent osteoarthritis by blocking the enzyme that destroys cartilage2. NF-κB is a protein complex that, among other important functions, regulates the immune response within our bodies. The inappropriate or overactivity of NF-κB has been linked to the development of inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Both green tea and grapeseed extract block the NF-kB pathway that leads to cellular inflammation3,4. Theaflavin and Resveratrol Theaflavins from black tea (green tea that has been oxidized) have been shown to regulate the genes that produce inflammatory cytokines and other damaging factors associated with degenerative disease and aging. By suppressing inflammation at its earliest stages, theaflavins help prevent and control the advancement of inflammation-related diseases5. Theaflavin also helps block the long-term effects of inflammation by blocking the action of inflammatory cytokines already present in the body. This prevents increased oxidation, further inflammation of the tissues, and the risk for chronic disease. Resveratrol Produced from grape skins, resveratrol has been shown to inhibit the enzymes primarily responsible for inflammation6,7. This reduces the production of inflammatory molecules, further suppressing pain. Resveratrol is also a powerful antioxidant, helping protect tissues from free radical damage resulting from injury and/or inflammation. Together, the ingredients of Nutricol provide the synergistic mechanisms required to halt inflammation in its earliest stages, strengthen cell walls to further quell damage resulting from ongoing inflammation, and restrict the processes that lead to tissue breakdown. The result is healthier tissues and associated reduction of pain. Hyaluronic acid Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a fluid carbohydrate, naturally present in various body tissues. When we are young, our bodies produce a lot of it but, as we age, its production lessens significantly. (It has been estimated that by the time we reach our mid-40s, the synthesis of HA is close to half that required by the body to function optimally.) As well as having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, HA cushions the joint and nerve tissues, acting as a shock absorber and increasing comfort during movement. It also stabilizes the breakdown of fluids within the joint tissues. In 2005, researchers at the University of California, Irvine, established that HA levels in osteoarthritic joints are below normal8, suggesting that HA supplementation can, to a degree, prevent the pain caused by wear and tear of the joints. This was confirmed in a 2008 double-blind clinical trial involving 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Ten of the study participants received 80 mg. of hyaluronic acid daily while 10 were given a placebo. After eight weeks, those taking the hyaluronic acid supplements reported experiencing less joint pain and enjoying a better quality of life when compared with those in the placebo group9. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) MSM is a naturally occurring sulfur compound found inside our bodies as well as in many of the foods we consume. It serves as an important source of dietary sulfur—a mineral that is critical to the maintenance of healthy joints and connective tissues. In addition to quelling inflammation, MSM also helps the body to produce the important antioxidant, glutathione. In one double-blind clinical trial, randomized, 50 men and women, 40-76 years of age with knee osteoarthritis pain were given either MSM or a placebo. After 12 weeks, those who had taken MSM reported significant pain reduction compared with their counterparts who had been given a placebo10. Glucosamine HCL Glucosamine is a naturally occurring substance found in the fluid around our joints. It works to support the structural framework of healthy joints, promoting their mobility, range of motion and flexibility. Glucosamine Hydrochloride contains more elemental glucosamine per mg than glucosamine sulfate and is more readily absorbed. Since most clinical trials have utilized glucosamine sulfate, the health supplement community relies on anecdotal evidence regarding the positive effects of glucosamine HCL on joint pain. Betaine HCL Betaine Hydrochloride is a crystalline alcohol derived from beets. It helps improve the process of digestion by increasing stomach acid levels. The poor digestion of foods, particularly proteins, can lead to digestive problems and poor absorption of nutrients. In turn, this can lead to vitamin deficiencies and food allergies when inadequately digested proteins are absorbed through the gut wall. Many people who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased intestinal permeability, especially when experiencing symptoms11. Betaine also helps decrease lactic acid production and discomfort following exercise. Many athletes say it helps them work out longer and harder without the pain associated with the build-up of lactic acid. As a methyl donor, betaine also participates in the methionine cycle within the liver and kidneys. (Reduced methylation can lead to a number of disease conditions including those of the heart and blood vessels, brain and liver.) Magnesium A vital mineral, magnesium is best recognized for the role it plays in bone strength and integrity, and for the proper functioning of the muscles. Magnesium and calcium work together to regulate electrical impulses within cells. Calcium enters the cell, triggers an electrical impulse, and is then escorted out of the cell by magnesium. Within the muscles, calcium contributes towards contraction, and magnesium to relaxation. When magnesium levels are low, this process becomes less regulated, and may result in annoying twitches or painful spasms. People who take calcium supplements that do not include magnesium are particularly at risk for cramping and spasm. Magnesium also helps to stabilize cell membranes and plays a role in over 300 enzyme processes within the body. A lack of magnesium contributes towards the inflammatory process. As part of the inflammatory response, proteolytic (protein-dissolving) enzymes are produced and directed to the affected area to help counteract the inflammation. These enzymes are mediated by magnesium and have been shown to work less effectively when magnesium levels are low12. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps to produce collagen, the building block of our skin, cartilage, ligaments, and blood vessels. A powerful antioxidant, vitamin C has also been shown to fight the inflammatory process. A 2008 study from the University of California, Berkeley, showed that vitamin C significantly lowered levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) a biomarker for inflammation13. Vitamin E Unlike water-soluble vitamin C, vitamin E is soluble in fats. Since the cell walls consist of lipids (fats), vitamin E’s antioxidant activity helps prevent damage to the cell walls caused by oxidation. Vitamin C, however, performs its antioxidant benefits in the watery medium of the cellular interior. Thus vitamin C and E work together to protect and strengthen the cells and, ultimately, the tissues of the entire body. 1. Pillai SP, Mitscher LA, Menon SR, Pillai CA, Shankel DM. Antimutagenic/antioxidant activity of green tea components and related compounds. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1999;18(3):147-58. 2. Corps AN, Curry VA, Buttle DJ, Hazleman BL, Riley GP: Inhibition of interleukin-1beta-stimulated collagenase and stromelysin expression in human tendon fibroblasts by epigallocatechin gallate ester. Matrix Biol 2004 Jun;23(3):163-9. 3. Terra X, Valls J, Vitrac X, et al. Grape-seed procyanidins act as antiinflammatory agents in endotoxin-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by inhibiting NFkB signaling pathway. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 30;55(11):4357-65. 4. Babu PV1, Si H, Liu D., Epigallocatechin gallate reduces vascular inflammation in db/db mice possibly through an NF-κB-mediated mechanism. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Sep;56(9):1424-32. 5. Aneja R, Odoms K, Denenberg AG, Wong HR. Theaflavin, a black tea extract, is a novel anti-inflammatory compound. Crit Care Med. 2004 Oct;32(10):2097-103. 6. Subbaramaiah K, et al. Resveratrol inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 transcription and activity in phorbol ester-treated human mammary epithelial cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;889:214-23. 7. Oi N, Jeong CH, Nadas J, et al. Resveratrol, a red wine polyphenol, suppresses pancreatic cancer by inhibiting leukotriene ahydrolase. Cancer Res. 2010 Dec 1;70(23):9755-64. 8. Tehranzadeh J. Cartilage metabolism in osteoarthritis and the influence of viscosupplementation and steroid: a review. Acta Radiol. 2005;46:288-296. 9. Kalman DS. Effect of a natural extract of chicken combs with a high content of hyaluronic acid (Hyal-Joint) on pain relief and quality of life in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition Journal. 2008;7:3. 10. Kim LS, Axelrod LJ, Howard P, Buratovich N, Waters RF. Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Mar;14(3):286-94. Epub 2005 Nov 23. 11. Cordain L, Toohey L, Smith MJ, Hickey MS. Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr 2000;83(3):207–17. 12. Rayssiguier Y, Mazur A., Magnesium and inflammation: lessons from animal models. Clin Calcium. 2005 Feb;15(2):245-8 13. Block G, Jensen CD, Dalvi TB, Norkus EP, Hudes M, Crawford PB, Holland N, Fung EB, Schumacher L, Harmatz P., Vitamin C treatment reduces elevated C-reactive protein. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Jan 1;46(1):70-7. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.09.030.