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  • nutritionists believe that Mn is important for certain enzymes involved in protein and calorie metabolism
  • needed for the proper formation of bone and cartilage
  • necessary for normal glucose metabolism
  • is part of an endogenous antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD)


  • average daily intake in America is 2.7 mg in males and 2.2 mg in females
  • RDA 2-5 mg/day

Interactions and Toxicity:

  • in many steel and chemical industry workers have been shown to develop a condition called locura manganica, or permanent insanity


  • whole grains, black tea, nuts and seeds are among the best sources
  • fruits and vegetables are moderate sources

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